Garden conifers

Garden conifers

- conifers">Botanical notes and habitat

Over 600 species belong to the botanical class of conifers, mainly spread in the temperate-cold climate zone, and with less diffusion, in the tropical.

In these areas the spontaneous conifers grow at variable altitudes: from the maritime area up to the maximum limit allowed for vegetation.

Their adaptation to the environment is to be considered typically specific, as we distinguish species of temperate and warm climates such as maritime pine and cedar of Lebanon, and other montane suitable for cold such as mountain pine or Canadian fir trees.

All conifers generally they can be defined as rustic or frugal towards the soil, because thanks to their great radical efficiency they can also develop on rocky cliffs, while, probably due to this particular specialization, they do not tolerate heavy and very humid soils.

The main botanical character that distinguishes them is mainly given by the type of leaves, which are needle-like and persistent (not deciduous) for most plants.

The prevailing vegetative form is the conical one, this character, however, is not distinctive, since many species are known with umbrella-shaped (Pinus) or prostrate up to even creeping (Juniperus).

Another character present in this class is the abundance of aromatic essences and resins, which are normally produced by the plant in channels, called precisely resiniferous, and which serve the same for the protection of the wood.

The longevity of conifers and the size they can reach is perhaps exclusive among all plants: consider that the Sequoia, for example, easily reaches 100 m in height, with a diameter of over 12 m and it is estimated that some are at least 1,500 years old.

The flower they produce is generally cone-shaped (botanically defined as strobilo), a characteristic that probably gives rise to the name of the class.

At maturity numerous seeds are formed which in some cases are used for food, as in the Pine from pine nuts, or for the extraction of oils, but in other cases (Taxus) can be toxic to poisonous.

- thuja">And conifers as ornamental plants

They are to be considered as ideal plants for various reasons, including the persistence of the foliage and their bearing, the coloring of the needles and, last but not least, the fragrance due to the resinous essences.

It is very frequently used as a hedge in the Thuja genus, thanks to their marked tolerance to pruning.

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Conifers in the garden project

For the various reasons of adaptability in the creation of the garden, one of the main warnings is that of choosing the "right" species for the "right" environment, also considering the dimensions that some of these require as living space and consequently the distance from other plants and buildings.

It is also good to evaluate the type of soil on which you intend to cultivate them and it would be better to have it analyzed, precisely because the main causes of failure can derive from both the physical point (STRUCTURE) and the chemical point (REACTION or pH).

Pruning of conifers

The free-range species require scarce but targeted pruning interventions, especially aimed at eliminating the double tops or the rearrangement of the same accidentally damaged and also for the elimination of broken or too low branches, which can be easily ruined due to frequent passages with tools various.

Sometimes pruning is done outside the optimal period (autumn - winter), such as for example for the elimination of "processionary nests" insects that develop in the spring period or for the elimination of branches that manifest pathologies such as branch cancers.

On pruning cuts or wounds it is good to intervene in any case with a cicatrizant in order to protect the wound from penetration of pathogens.

-">Fertilization of conifers

Fertilization on this type of plants is erroneously considered not essential, however in situations different from their natural HABITAT they benefit undoubtedly especially if the soils are alkaline and tenacious or if used in hedges and therefore subjected to frequent cuts.

Referring to what has been said for the plant warnings, periodic fertilizations with granular products benefit these essences.

This advice is also particularly suitable for Thuja hedges or Leylandi cypresses, in order to reinvigorate and thicken the foliage.

To treat and prevent yellowing of the shoots and foliage, typical of heavy, calcareous or iron-deficient soils, specific anti-chlorine products must be distributed.

-">Garden conifers: Adversity and care

There are various adverse causes that affect conifers especially if grown in difficult soils or in critical stages of growth such as post - transplant.

They are defined precisely as "environmental" for example the type of non-ideal soil, pollution, causes that can lead the plant to a general debilitation and a predisposition to "parasitic" attacks for the loss of self-defense resources.

Among the parasitic causes there are those of origin:

· Vegetable or mushroom

Cortical and rameal cancers

Desiccation of the leaves

Basal or collar rot

Root rot from armillaria

Animals or insects


Bark beetles or wood destroyers


Lepidoptera and processionary larvae


All these adversities can be prevented and / or treated with specific plant protection products.

Video: Japanese Maples u0026 dwarf conifers - Amazing Maple